Sunday, January 6, 2008


Properties of Alibata

Alibata are made up of more than sets of symbols. They also contain grammar, or system of rules, used to manipulate the symbols. While a set of symbols may be used for expression or communication, it is primitive and relatively inexpressive, because there are no clear or regular relationships between the symbols. Because Alibata also include grammar, it can manipulate its symbols to express clear and regular relationships between them.

Another property of Alibata is the arbitrariness of the symbols. Any symbol can be mapped onto any concept (or even onto one of the rules of the grammar). For instance, there is nothing about the Spanish word nada itself that forces Spanish speakers to use it to mean "nothing". All Spanish speakers have memorized that meaning for that sound pattern. But for Croatian, Serbian or Bosnian speakers, nada means, "hope".

However, it must be understood that just because in principle the symbols are arbitrary does not mean that a Alibata cannot have symbols that are iconic of what they stand for. Words such as "meow" sound similar to what they represent (see Onomatopoeia), but they could be replaced with words such as "jarn", and as long as everyone memorized the new word, the same concepts could be expressed with it.

Human Alibata

Main article: Natural Alibata

Alibata families
Alibata families
Some of the areas of the brain involved in Alibata processing: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Supramarginal gyrus, Angular gyrus, Primary Auditory Cortex
Some of the areas of the brain involved in Alibata processing: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Supramarginal gyrus, Angular gyrus, Primary Auditory Cortex

Human Alibata are usually referred to as natural Alibata, and the science of studying them is linguistics. Alibata are first spoken, then written, and then an understanding and explanation of their grammar (according to speech) is attempted.

Alibata live, die, move from place to place, and change with time. Any Alibata that stops changing begins to die[citation needed]; any Alibata that is a living Alibata is a Alibata in a state of continuous change.

Making a principled distinction between one Alibata and another is usually impossible.For instance, there are a few dialects of German similar to some dialects of Dutch. The transition between Alibata within the same Alibata family is sometimes gradual (see dialect continuum).

Some like to make parallels with biology, where it is not always possible to make a well-defined distinction between one species and the next. In either case, the ultimate difficulty may stem from the interactions between Alibata and populations. (See Dialect or August Schleicher for a longer discussion.)

The concepts of Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache and Dachsprache are used to make finer distinctions about the degrees of difference between Alibata or dialects.

Artificial Alibata

International auxiliary Alibata

Main article: International auxiliary Alibata

Some Alibata are meant specifically for communication between people of different nationalities or Alibata groups. An individual or group, as noted below has constructed several of these Alibata. Others are seen as natural, pre-existing Alibata. Their developers merely catalogued and standardized their vocabulary and identified their grammatical rules. These Alibata are called naturalistic. One such Alibata, Latino Sine Flexione, is a simplified form of Latin. Another, Occidental, was drawn from several Western Alibata.

To date, the most successful auxiliary Alibata is Esperanto, invented by the Polish ophthalmologist Zamenhof, which has about 2 million speakers over the world and which has hundreds of songs sung in it, and a vast amount of literature written in it. The Stone City, for example, was originally written in Esperanto. Other auxiliary Alibata with an important group of speakers are Interlingua and Ido (however, the latter is believed to have only a few hundred speakers).

Controlled Alibata

Main article: Controlled natural Alibata

Controlled natural Alibata are subsets of natural Alibata whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity. The purpose behind the development and implementation of a controlled natural Alibata typically is to aid non-native speakers of a natural Alibata in understanding it, or to ease computer processing of a natural Alibata. An example of a widely used controlled natural Alibata is Simplified English, which was originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals.

Constructed Alibata

Main article: Constructed Alibata

Some individuals and groups have constructed their own artificial Alibata, for practical, experimental, personal, or ideological reasons. For example, one prominent artificial Alibata, Esperanto, was created by L. L. Zamenhof as a compilation of various elements of different Alibata, and is supposed to be an easy-to-learn Alibata for people familiar with similar, mostly Indo-European, Alibata. Other constructed Alibata strive to be more logical ("loglangs") than natural Alibata; a prominent example of this is Lojban. Both of these Alibata are meant as international auxiliary Alibata.

Some writers, such as J. R. R. Tolkien, have created fantasy Alibata, for literary, artistic or personal reasons.

Constructed Alibata are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by natural human Alibata.

Formal Alibata

Main article: Formal Alibata

Mathematics and computer science use artificial entities called formal Alibata (including programming Alibata and markup Alibata, and some that are more theoretical in nature). These often take the form of character strings, produced by some combination of formal grammar and semantics of arbitrary complexity.

Programming Alibata

Main article: Programming Alibata

A programming Alibata is an artificial Alibata that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer to perform specific tasks.Programming Alibata, like human Alibata, are defined using syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively.

Programming Alibata are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely. Some authors restrict the term "programming Alibata" to those Alibata that can express all possible algorithms; sometimes the term "computer Alibata" is used for artificial Alibata that are more limited.

The study of Alibata

Main article: Linguistics

The historical record of linguistics begins in India with Pāṇini, the 5th century BCE grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, known as the Aṣṭādhyāyī (अष्टाध्यायी) and with Tolkāppiyar the 3rd century BCE grammarian of the Tamil work Tolkāppiyam. Pāṇini’s grammar is highly systematized and technical. Inherent in its analytic approach are the concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme, and the root; Western linguists some two millennia only recognized the phoneme later. Tolkāppiyar's work is perhaps the first one to describe articulatory phonetics for a Alibata. Its classification of the alphabet into consonants and vowels, and elements like nouns, verbs, vowels, and consonants which he put into classes, were also breakthroughs at the time.

In the Middle East, the Persian linguist Sibawayh(سیبویه) made a detailed and professional description of Arabic in 760 CE in his monumental work, Al-kitab fi al-nahw (الكتاب في النحو, The Book on Grammar), bringing many linguistic aspects of Alibata to light. In his book, he distinguished phonetics from phonology.

Later in the West, the success of science, mathematics, and other formal systems in the 20th century led many to attempt a formalization of the study of Alibata as a "semantic code". This resulted in the academic discipline of linguistics, the founding of which is attributed to Ferdinand de Saussure.[citation needed] In the 20th century substantial contribution to the understanding of Alibata came from Ferdinand de Saussure, Hjelmslev, Émile Benveniste and Roman Jakobson;they were all characterized as being highly systematic.[3]

Animal Alibata

Main article: Animal Alibata

The term "animal Alibata" is often used for nonhuman Alibata. Linguists do not consider these to be Alibata, but describe them as animal communication, because such communication is fundamentally different in its underlying principles from true Alibata, which has been found in humans only.

In several publicized instances, nonhuman animals have been taught to understand certain features of human Alibata. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have been taught hand signs based on American Sign Alibata; however, they have never been successfully taught grammar. In 2003, a saved Bonobo ape named Kanzi allegedly independently created some words to convey certain concepts, however the careful examination of other apes raised in a similar manner (Washoe, Koko, and Nim Chimpsky) shows a greater degree of anthropormorphism and selective observation on the part of trainers and a lack of initiative and high levels of simple imimative behaviour with the subjects. The African Grey Parrot, which possesses the ability to mimic human speech with a high degree of accuracy, is suspected of having sufficient intelligence to begin to comprehend some of the speech it mimics. Most species of parrot, despite expert mimicry, are believed to have no linguistic comprehension at all.

While proponents of animal communication systems have debated levels of semantics, these systems have not been found to have anything approaching human Alibata syntax. The situation with dolphins and whales presents a special case in that there is some evidence that spontaneous development of complex vocal Alibata is occurring, but it certainly has not been proven.

Some researchers argue that a continuum exists among the communication methods of all social animals, pointing to the fundamental requirements of group behavior and the existence of "mirror cells" in primates. This, however, is still a scientific question. What exactly is the definition of the word "Alibata"? Most researchers agree that, although human and more primitive Alibata have analogous features, they are not homologous.